Literacy and Reading

Difficulty with literacy and reading, also known as dyslexia, affects 5-10 % of people and is the most common learning difficulty.  Dyslexia can affect one or more of the following areas: 

Literacy at TMB

If left unaddressed, literacy difficulties can lead to academic problems, poor self-esteem and social-emotional challenges.  People with dyslexia can become self-conscious and embarrassed of their difficulties.   

Effective strategies for supporting literacy challenges

There’s great news if your child is dyslexic.  Years of research means that we have access to various effective reading intervention strategies to support people with dyslexia.  Evidence-based reading instruction is:


Explicit instruction involves direct teaching of the various components of reading, such as phonemic awareness (the ability to identify and manipulate individual sounds in words), phonics (the relationship between sounds and letters), fluency (reading smoothly and accurately), vocabulary development, and reading comprehension strategies


Systematic instruction means that skills are built upon each other in a sequence. It also means that frequent and structured practice is presented.

It should also include instruction for oral language challenges (such as difficulties with listening comprehension or expression) that may impact your child’s written language.  



Literacy instruction at TMB

At TMB, our speech therapists are trained in the Sounds -Write Program. 

Prior to beginning literacy instruction, your child’s therapist will conduct a comprehensive assessment to identify the specific strengths and limitations your child is experiencing in their reading skills.  You can find out more about the Sounds -Write Program on our resources page.    

Literacy FAQ

Does tutoring help a child who is falling behind in reading?
It can be difficult to know who can help your child when they are falling behind with reading. Tutors can help but they should have specialist training in explicit and systematic approaches to reading.
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Is dyslexia a vision problem?
Dyslexia is not related to vision problems, however, vision difficulties can impact your child's reading. A vision test is recommended before commencing literacy instruction to rule out vision issues.
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Who can diagnose dyslexia?
Dyslexia is typically diagnosed by a psychologist. however it is not necessary for your child to have a formal diagnosis of dyslexia in order to access literacy instruction at TMB.
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My child is having difficulty reading. What can we do at home?
Decodable readers can be very helpful for struggling readers. There are also lots of "low text" reading options, e.g. graphic novels, which can provide an enjoyable reading experience to your child while their skills are catching up.
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